The art of negotiation has been replaced by the science of negotiation. Fact-based negotiation starts with a process. This effort includes an understanding and quantification of the expectations and limitations to the authority of the negotiating team.
It is only with this knowledge that the team can determine what must be achieved in order to have a successful negotiation, what should be achieved to complete satisfaction, and what concessions the team can make during the actual negotiations.
With this knowledge, the negotiating team can start the process of understanding the environment in which they are negotiating, the culture of the teams, the dynamics of the industry and marketplace, and the products or service specifications and alternatives.